The 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) test is routinely ordered as part of newborn screening to detect congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. This test may sometimes be ordered in older children or in adults when the milder form of CAH (late-onset) is suspected. The 17-OHP test may also be conducted when a girl or woman is experiencing symptoms that may be due to CAH or may be due to another condition, such as PCOS. Symptoms may include:
>Excess facial and body hair (hirsutism)
>Lack of or irregular menstrual periods (menses)
>Development of male secondary sex characteristics
Testing may be performed on boys or men when they experience:
>Early (precocious) puberty
DHEA stands for dehydroepiandrosterone. It is a weak male hormone (androgen) produced by the adrenal glands in both men and women. The DHEA-sulfate test measures the amount of DHEA-sulfate in the blood. This test is done to check the function of the 2 adrenal glands. One of these glands sits above each kidney. They are one of the major sources of androgens in women. The DHEA-sulfate test is often done in women who show signs of having excess male hormones. Some of these signs are male body changes, excess hair growth, irregular periods, and problems becoming pregnant.
It may also be done in women who are concerned about low libido or decreased sexual satisfaction.The test is also done in children who are maturing too early (precocious puberty).
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is an important part of the reproductive system. It’s responsible for the growth of ovarian follicles. Follicles produce estrogen and progesterone in the ovaries and help maintain the menstrual cycles in women. In men, FSH is a part of the development of the gonads as well as sperm production.The FSH test measures the level of FSH found in your blood. Your doctor will order an FSH test to find the underlying cause of symptoms affecting the reproductive system.
Insulin testing has several possible uses. Insulin is a hormone that is produced and stored in the beta cells of the pancreas. Insulin helps transport glucose , the body's main source of energy, from the blood to within cells. An insulin test may also be done when an individual has or is suspected of having insulin resistance. This may include people with type 2 diabetes, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), prediabetes or heart disease, or metabolic syndrome.
A health practitioner also may order insulin and C-peptide tests after an insulinoma has been successfully removed to verify the effectiveness of treatment and then order the tests periodically to monitor for recurrence.
Periodic testing may also be used to monitor the success of an islet cell transplant by measuring the insulin-producing capacity of the transplant.
Luteinizing hormone (LH) is an important hormone both men and women produce. This hormone is known as a gonadotropin, and it affects the sex organs in both men and women. For women, it affects ovaries, and in men, it affects the testes. LH plays a role in puberty, menstruation, and fertility. An LH blood test measures the amount of LH in your bloodstream. If you’re a woman, the amount of this hormone in your bloodstream varies throughout the menstrual cycle and changes with pregnancy. If you’re a man, your doctor can order an LH test to establish a baseline LH level. Your doctor can also measure your LH level after giving you an injection of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH).
Prolactin is a hormone whose primary function is helping women produce milk after childbirth.
It’s important for both male and female reproductive health. A Prolactin test is just like a blood test. The sample is typically collected three to four hours after waking up in the morning. Some birth control pills, high blood pressure drugs, or antidepressants can affect the test results. Tell your doctor about any medications you’re taking before the test is done. Sleeping problems, high stress levels, and strenuous exercise before the test can also influence the results.
Testosterone is responsible for the development of the male external genitalia and secondary sexual characteristics. In females, its main role is as an estrogen precursor. In both genders, it also exerts anabolic effects and influences behavior. A testosterone level test is a simple blood draw that doesn’t require much preparation.
A blood glucose test measures the amount of glucose in your blood. Glucose, a type of simple sugar, is your body’s main source of energy. Your body converts the carbohydrates you eat into glucose.
Glucose testing is primarily done to check for type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. Diabetes is a condition that causes your blood glucose level to rise.
The amount of sugar in your blood is usually controlled by a hormone called insulin. However, if you have diabetes, your body either doesn’t make enough insulin or the insulin produced doesn’t work properly. This causes sugar to build up in your blood. Increased levels of blood sugar can lead to severe organ damage if left untreated.
In some cases, blood glucose testing may also be used to test for hypoglycemia. This condition occurs when the levels of glucose in your blood are too low.
A thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) test measures the amount of TSH in blood. TSH is produced by the pituitary gland, which is responsible for regulating the amount of hormones released by the thyroid. A TSH test is often performed to determine the underlying cause of abnormal thyroid hormone levels. It’s also used to screen for an underactive or overactive thyroid gland. The level of TSH in the blood, can determine how well the thyroid is working.