The urine routine is a set of screening tests that can detect some common diseases. It may be used to screen for and/or help diagnose conditions such as a urinary tract infections, kidney disorders, liver problems, diabetes or other metabolic conditions, to name a few.
A urine routine examination or Urinanalysis is comprised of several chemical, microscopic and visual examinations used to detect cells, cell fragments and substances such as crystals or casts in the urine associated with the various conditions listed above. It can detect abnormalities that might require follow-up investigation and additional testing. Often, substances such as protein or glucose will begin to appear in the urine before people are aware that they may have a problem.
This is a pathological blood test used to evaluate your overall health and detect a wide range of disorders, including anemia, infection and leukemia. Abnormal increases or decreases in cell counts as revealed in a complete blood count may indicate that you have an underlying medical condition.
Urine culture is done to identify presence of bacteria or fungus in urine, indicating Urinary tract infection (UTI). Although a variety of bacteria can cause UTIs, most are due to Escherichia coli, bacteria that are common in the digestive tract and routinely found in stool. Other bacteria that may cause UTIs include species of Proteus, Klebsiella, Enterococcus, and Staphylococcus. Occasionally, a UTI may be due to a yeast, such as Candida albicans; urethritis is often due to a sexually transmitted disease such as herpes, chlamydia, or gonorrhea.
Pregnant women without any symptoms are recommended to be screened during the first trimester or first prenatal visit for bacteria in their urine, which could affect the health of the developing baby.
An erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) test is sometimes called a sedimentation rate test or sed rate test. This test doesn’t diagnose one specific condition. Instead, it helps your doctor determine whether you’re experiencing inflammation. The doctor will look at ESR results along with other information or test results to help figure out a diagnosis. The tests ordered will depend on your symptoms. This test can also monitor inflammatory diseases.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is an important part of the reproductive system. It’s responsible for the growth of ovarian follicles. Follicles produce estrogen and progesterone in the ovaries and help maintain the menstrual cycles in women. In men, FSH is a part of the development of the gonads as well as sperm production.The FSH test measures the level of FSH found in your blood. Your doctor will order an FSH test to find the underlying cause of symptoms affecting the reproductive system.
The term HbA1c refers to glycated haemoglobin. By measuring glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), clinicians are able to get an overall picture of what our average blood sugar levels have been over a period of weeks/months.
For people with diabetes this is important as the higher the HbA1c, the greater the risk of developing diabetes-related complications.
Prolactin is a hormone whose primary function is helping women produce milk after childbirth.
It’s important for both male and female reproductive health. A Prolactin test is just like a blood test. The sample is typically collected three to four hours after waking up in the morning. Some birth control pills, high blood pressure drugs, or antidepressants can affect the test results. Tell your doctor about any medications you’re taking before the test is done. Sleeping problems, high stress levels, and strenuous exercise before the test can also influence the results.
Testosterone is responsible for the development of the male external genitalia and secondary sexual characteristics. In females, its main role is as an estrogen precursor. In both genders, it also exerts anabolic effects and influences behavior. A testosterone level test is a simple blood draw that doesn’t require much preparation.
A Vitamin D test is used to:
> Determine if bone weakness, bone malformation, or abnormal metabolism of calcium (reflected by abnormal calcium, phosphorus, PTH) is occurring as a result of a deficiency or excess of Vitamin D
> Help diagnose or monitor problems with parathyroid gland functioning since PTH is essential for Vitamin D activation
> Screen people who are at high risk of deficiency, as recommended by the National Osteoporosis Foundation, the Institute of Medicine, and the Endocrine Society
> Help monitor the health status of individuals with diseases that interfere with fat absorption, such as cystic fibrosis and Crohn disease, since Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin and is absorbed from the intestine like a fat
> Monitor people who have had gastric bypass surgery and may not be able to absorb enough Vitamin D
> Help determine the effectiveness of treatment when Vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus, and/or magnesium supplementation is prescribed
The usual blood test which checks that the kidneys are working properly measures the level of urea, creatinine and certain dissolved salts. If you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes or high blood pressure, your doctor may recommend this test every 6 months.
Blood test to help diagnose and monitor liver disease or damage. The tests measure the levels of certain enzymes and proteins in your blood.Some of these tests measure how well the liver is performing its normal functions of producing protein and clearing bilirubin, a blood waste product. Other liver function tests measure enzymes that liver cells release in response to damage or disease.
Thyroid function tests are a series of blood tests used to measure health of thyroid gland. The thyroid produces two major hormones: triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). If your thyroid gland doesn’t produce enough of these hormones, you may experience symptoms such as weight gain, lack of energy, and depression. This condition is called hypothyroidism.If your thyroid gland produces too many hormones, you may experience weight loss, high levels of anxiety, tremors, and a sense of being on a high. This is called hyperthyroidism.
A complete cholesterol test — also called a lipid panel or lipid profile — is a blood test that can measure the amount of cholesterol and triglycerides in your blood.
A cholesterol test can help determine your risk of the buildup of plaques in your arteries that can lead to narrowed or blocked arteries throughout your body.High cholesterol levels usually don't cause any signs or symptoms, so a cholesterol test is an important tool. High cholesterol levels often are a significant risk factor for heart disease.
A blood glucose test measures the amount of glucose in your blood. Glucose, a type of simple sugar, is your body’s main source of energy. Your body converts the carbohydrates you eat into glucose.
Glucose testing is primarily done to check for type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. Diabetes is a condition that causes your blood glucose level to rise.
The amount of sugar in your blood is usually controlled by a hormone called insulin. However, if you have diabetes, your body either doesn’t make enough insulin or the insulin produced doesn’t work properly. This causes sugar to build up in your blood. Increased levels of blood sugar can lead to severe organ damage if left untreated.
In some cases, blood glucose testing may also be used to test for hypoglycemia. This condition occurs when the levels of glucose in your blood are too low.
A Vitamin B12 test measures the amount of Vitamin B12 in the blood. The body needs this B Vitamin to make blood cells and to maintain a healthy nervous system.
The test is used to :
> Check for Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia. There are several risk factors for this anemia, such as those who have had stomach or intestinal surgery, small intestine problems, or people with a family history of this anemia.
> Diagnose the cause of certain types of anemia, such as megaloblastic anemia.
> Help find the cause of dementia or other nervous system symptoms, such as tingling or numbness of the arms or legs (peripheral neuropathy).
> See if Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia is present after a person has been diagnosed with atrophic gastritis.